Here is a Bible-study summary about the sabbath:
Leviticus 23: This prologue shows us that the Sabbath was a feast, along with all the other festivals and feast-days. This prologue lets us know us the sabbath was one part of the over-all Old Testament ceremonial law.
Exodus 20:11 – The sabbath commemorated God's finishing of creation. Just as God stopped working at the end of the sixth days of creation, the Jews were to stop working on the sabbath.
Deut. 5:15 – The sabbath also commemorated the Jews' deliverance from Egyptian slavery. Although this is a second distinct reason behind the sabbath, the theme of not-working is shared between the two reasons. God stopped working at the end of the sixth day of creation, and the Jews were set free from the back-breaking labor of slavery by God's mighty deliverance. Both meanings involve no longer working.
Exodus 23:10-12 – Every seventh year was also a sabbath year. Lev. 25:4. The Jews were commanded to leave their fields unplowed and unplanted, and to live off that which grew naturally. It was a programmed exercise in faith in the Lord's provision. Their refusal to observe it (because it appears they never obeyed it) is why Israel spent 70 years in Babylon. Their term of exile was dictated by the number of they had failed to keep the sabbath year.
Exodus 31:14 – How important was sabbath-keeping? Breaking it was a death-penalty crime. Some poor fool was caught gathering firewood on the sabbath, and the Jews stoned him. The fact that the sabbath was a death-penalty law reveals to us that it was a civil law in addition to be a ceremonial law.
Exodus 31:16 – The sabbath day symbolized God's national covenant with Israel, and in this way it was equal in importance with circumcision. This fact illustrates why Christians are not required to keep the sabbath. Unlike His covenant with the Jews, God does not have a national covenant with Christians. Christ's new covenant is made with individuals only, and always results in that person's sins being remitted, and the Holy Spirit writing God's law upon their reborn heart.
Erroneous teachings about the Sabbath